You burn fewer calories when you’re sleeping, so it stands to reason that staying up all night will burn more calories than going to bed as usual. But exactly how many calories do you burn by staying up all night?
A study conducted in 1988 showed that the average adult human’s basal metabolic rate decreases by approximately 5% while asleep. This value was averaged across 80 healthy male and female adults. If we take an example of an adult male whose base metabolic rate is 2000 kcal/day, we can divide this into sleeping and awake states. These two states have a ratio of 1:2, seeing as you spend 1/3 of your day asleep. So as a rough estimate, the eight hours spent sleeping will burn 2000*0.95*8/24 = 633 kcal, whereas eight hours spent awake burn 2000*8/24 = 667 kcal. This goes to show that not sleeping for a day burns an extra 45 calories. Put another way, every hour you spend awake at night, rather than sleeping will burn an additional 45/8 = 5.6 calories.
This value will of course be offset if you consume food during the hours you would normally be sleeping. Furthermore, 45 calories is hardly worth it, considering the negative effects of sleep deprivation. You will actually increase your metabolism if you don’t get enough sleep, and as a result you will be hungrier the following day. The resulting craving for food will more than compensate for the measly 45 calories burned by not sleeping.